International Trade News. September-October 2014


Russia intends to initiate a dispute settlement procedure in the WTO against Ukraine

An intention of the Russian Federation to file a dispute against Ukraine in the WTO was announced by Maksim Medvedkov, the Head of Trade Negotiations Department of the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation|1|. The reason behind is the prolongation by Ukraine of the antidumping duties on the importation of ammonium nitrate from the Russian Federation. The antidumping duties in the scope of interim and sunset reviews were determined considering so-called gas adjustments – the practice that corresponds to the previous practice of the EU. However, the Russian Federation is against such approach given that the dispute in the WTO against the EU was initiated in December 2013|2|.

Just to remind: the antidumping duties on ammonium nitrate originating from Russia were extended for the next five years according to the decision of the Interdepartmental Commission on International Trade No. АД-315/2014/4421-06, which entered into force on 8 July 2014. In addition, the anti-dumping duties for the JSC “MHK "EuroChem" and other Russian manufacturers were increased from 10.78% to 36.03%, for the PJSC "Dorohobuzh" – from 9.76% to 20.51%.

Russia plans to renegotiate its WTO tariff commitments

In July 2014, the Russian delegation to the WTO initiated renegotiations with regard to the Russian tariff commitments in the WTO. Due to the Russian policy of import substitution and internal market protection, the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation proposed to increase the import duties on goods of certain industries such as machine building industry, metallurgy, transportation and other industries. The detailed list of goods is now being developed by the Ministry.|3|

The EU started the dispute settlement procedure in the WTO against the Russian Federation

According to the notification of the European Commission, on 31 October 2014, the request for consultations with the Russian Federation regarding the import duties on paper goods, refrigerators and palm oil was submitted to the WTO Dispute Settlement Body. The EU considers that Russia violated its WTO obligations by applying higher tariffs on imports of above-mentioned goods than those provided in its commitments, or fixing a minimum amount that needs to be paid even if not justified by the agreed duty rate. Consultations are the first step in the dispute settlement procedure. Unless during the consultations the parties achieve an amicable solution, the dispute will be transferred to the consideration of the panel.

Compliance with the Bali package is at stake

Compliance with the Bali package of agreements signed in December 2013 was blocked by India on 25 July 2014. Agreements within the framework of the aforementioned package have been rightfully considered as the greatest progress in trade liberalization since 1995 and envisaged the reforms in four areas: trade facilitation, agriculture, trade in cotton and development of the least developed countries. In particular, the Agreement on Trade Facilitation was found as a significant achievement, which Protocol for acceptance was to be opened not later than 31 July 2014.

However, the content of these minutes runs counter to one of the key interests of India and other developing countries, namely the provision of subsidies to producers in order to support the domestic food reserves. Therefore, on 25 July 2014, India has presented an ultimatum, stating that it would not support the Agreement on Trade Facilitation unless the package of documents includes an agreement entitling developing countries to grant subsidies in order to create the domestic food reserves.

Informal meeting within the Agriculture Committee in September showed that the consensus on this issue has not yet been achieved as some countries expressed their wish to continue their work under the post-Bali agenda, others hope that it is possible to find a way out of the situation through consultations. The third group of countries is convinced that the work can not go forward while the agreement on the adoption of the aforementioned Minutes was broken (this category includes the United States, EU, Japan, Canada).|4|

Seychelles have agreed the terms of WTO accession  

On 17 October 2014, Member States of the WTO agreed the terms of accession of Seychelles to the WTO|5|, thus completing the stage of negotiations, which lasted for almost 18 years. Now the decision on the country’s accession to the WTO must be adopted by the General Council in December this year. It is expected that Seychelles will become a full member of the WTO until 2 June 2015. The average tariff rate for Seychelles is set at the level 9.5 – 16.9% for agricultural goods and 8.3% for industrial goods.


EU-Ukraine Association Agreement was ratified with reservations

The Ukrainian and the European Parliaments simultaneously ratified the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement on 16 September 2014. On 17 September, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine by its Regulation No. 847-2014-p approved the Action Plan for the Implementation of the Association Agreement for 2014-2017|6|.

However, as a result of the trilateral negotiations between Ukraine, the Russian Federation and the EU, which took place on 12 September 2014 in Brussels, the EU Council decided to postpone the provisional application of the Association Agreement in the part of trade (governed by Title IV of the Association Agreement) until 1 January 2016.|7| Thus, on 1 November 2014, only the provisional application of so-called "political" part of the Agreement commenced which includes the provisions on political dialogue, common security policy, etc. At the same time the EU extended the unilateral trade preferences concerning goods originating from Ukraine for 2015. The decision was approved by the Committee on International Trade of the European Parliament on 20 October 2014 and adopted by the European Parliament on 23 October 2014. Comprehensive application of the Agreement will start since 1 January 2016 alongside with the functioning of the FTA between Ukraine and the EU.

The Russian Federation and Ukraine are likely to introduce mutual customs duties

On 19 September 2014, the Government of the Russian Federation adopted the Resolution № 959 "On Introduction of Import Customs Duties for the Goods Originating from Ukraine"|8|, which envisages the introduction of duties for the goods originating in Ukraine at rates of the Common Customs Tariff of the Customs Union. The duties will be enacted in case Ukraine applies provisions of the economic part of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement.

Upon this fact, the Minister of economic development and trade of Ukraine presented for discussion “The List of Goods Classified under 10 digits of Codes in accordance with the Ukrainian Commodity Classification for Foreign Economic Activity (“UCCFEA”)”. The goods specified in this List can be excluded from the free trade regime between the Russian Federation and Ukraine and subjected to Ukrainian import duties in case the above-mentioned Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation enters into force.|9|

The Agreement on the Eurasian Economic Union was ratified

In October 2014, the parliaments of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Belarus and the Republic of Kazakhstan ratified the Agreement on the Establishment of the Eurasian Economic Union (the “EEU”). On 10 October, the Agreement on Accession of the Republic of Armenia to the afore-mentioned Agreement was signed. Kyrgyzstan intends to join the EEU on 1 January 2015.

Just to remind: the Agreement on the Eurasian Economic Union was signed by the presidents of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Belarus and the Republic of Kazakhstan during the meeting of the Supreme Eurasian Economic Council in Astana on 29 May 2014. The Agreement shall enter into force on 1 January 2015 and envisages the free movement of goods, services, capital, labor force as well as provides for common or coordinated policy in key economic sectors.


Ukraine initiated a countervailing investigation against import of cars from the Russian Federation

On 15 September 2014, the Interdepartmental Commission on International Trade adopted the decision “On the Initiation and Conduct of the Countervailing Investigation Concerning Importation of cars originating from the Russian Federation into UkraineNo. AC-321/2014/4421-06, which entered into force on 18 September 2014 (the UCCFEA code – 8703)|10|. The investigation was initiated upon the request of the Association of Automobile Manufacturers of Ukraine "Ukrautoprom" which acted on behalf of the PJSC "ZAZ", the State Enterprise "ASZ No. 2" and the PJSC "AK" Bogdan Motors".

The antidumping measures against import of iron products were continued

On 15 September 2014, the Interdepartmental Commission on International Trade adopted a decision "On the Prolongation of Anti-dumping Measures on Imports of the Products Made from Ferrous Metals without Electric Insulation (except for Products of Corrosion-Resistant (Stainless) Steel and Products for Civil Aviation) Originating from the People’s Republic of China into UkraineNo. AД-320/2014/4421-06, which came into effect on 19 September 2014. This decision extended for five years the anti-dumping measures imposed by the Commission’s decision as of 23 July 2008 No. AД-183/2008/143-48 regarding the wires, ropes and cables (the UCCFEA codes 7312 10 51 00, 7312 10 59 00, 7312 10 82 00, 7312 10 84 00, 7312 10 99 00, 7312 10 75 00). The anti-dumping duty remains at the level of 123%|11|.

Review of safeguard measures against import of pipes is initiated

The Interdepartmental Commission on International Trade adopted a decision "On Initiation of the Review and Prolongation of the Safeguard Measures against Imports of Seamless Stainless Steel Casing and Tubing Pipes Regardless of the Country of Origin and Export into the territory of Ukraine” No. СП-323/2014/4421-06 which entered into force on 1 October 2014. According to this decision the review of safeguard measures against steel pipes (the UCCFEA codes 7304 29 10 00 and 7304 29 30 00) was initiated. The original measures were imposed by the Commission’s decision dated 23.07.2008 No. СП-182/2008/143-31 and prolonged by the Commission’s Decision dated 30.09.2011 No. СП-261/2011/4423-28|12|. The review was initiated at the complaint of the group of companies "INTERPIPE".

The Russian Federation imposed trade restrictions against import of goods originating from Ukraine

In September – October 2014, the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protectionand Human Welfare (“Rospotrebnadzor”) prohibited the importation of a number of Ukrainian goods into the territory of the Russian Federation. In particular, the restrictions concerned the confectionaries (producers “Konti” and “AVK”) and wood chipboards (producer “Krono-Ukraina”). Further, the Russian Federation prohibited the importation of all cheese products (the UCCFEA codes 1901 and 2106) as of 14.10.2014 due to the violation of consumer protection legislation. The importation of all quarantineable agricultural products was prohibited as of 22.10.2014 due to the assumed violation of rules of origin and non-provision by the State Veterinary and Phytosanitary Service of Ukraine of the information concerning the volumes of agricultural goods produced during the current year in Ukraine.

In response to the latter prohibition, the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade of Ukraine filed a notification to the WTO Central Registry of Notifications relating to the unreasonable nature of actions of the Russian Federation. In opinion of Ukraine, the Russian Federation violated the provisions of the bilateral agreement as well as international standards on the application of phytosanitary measures. According to the information provided by the State Veterinary and Phytosanitary Service and of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rospotrebnadzor did not send any official requests and failed to present any proves of violations committed by Ukrainian exporters.

At the same time, as of 9 October 2014, Rospotrebnadzor resumed certification of Ukrainian pig products produced by the manufacturers “Salkom plus”, “Tavr-Plus”, “VMP” “Svizhenka” in the Russian Federation.|13|

The Customs Union started the antidumping investigation against import of railway wheels from Ukraine

On 16 October 2014, the Internal Market Protection Department of the Eurasian Economic Commission adopted the decision “On Initiation of the Antidumping Investigation against Steel Solid-Rolled Wheels Originating from Ukraine and Imported into the Customs Territory of the Customs Union”.|14| The investigation was initiated at the request of the PJSC “Vyskynsky metallurgichesky zavod” and the PJSC “EVRAZ Nizhnetagilsky metallurgichesky kombinat” regarding railway wheels classified under the code 8607 19 100 9 according to the Foreign Economic Activity Commodity Nomenclature of the Customs Union (“FEACN of the CU”).


Law of Ukraine on food safety came into force

On 20 September 2014, the Law of Ukraine On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine Regarding Food Products” No. 1602 as of 22.07.2014|15| came into force, which aims to improve food safety and quality as well as to harmonize the legislation of Ukraine with the relevant EU legislation.


NBU liberalized foreign exchange restrictions for agricultural companies

The National Bank of Ukraine (“NBU”) liberalized the requirements for conduct of foreign exchange transactions by agricultural producers and simplified the operation of their foreign economic activity. The NBU Board Resolution No. 626 dated 3 October 2014|16| and taking effect on 4 October 2014 amended the NBU Board Resolution "On the Imposition of Additional Measures to Stabilize the Monetary and Foreign Exchange Markets of Ukraine" No. 540 dated 29 August 2014. In particular, the amendments lifted a ban regarding the payments made by the agricultural producers in a foreign currency through the international business contracts under which the product has been imported into the territory of Ukraine and which export customs' clearance was conducted per bill of entry with the date of issue exceeding 180 days.|17|

Tariff quota for the importation of Ukrainian barley is extended until the end of 2014

The European Commission extended the action date of the tariff quota on Ukrainian barley until the end of 2014.

Just to remind: this import quota was assumed to close on 31 October 2014. However, by virtue of the fact that the EU price for barley is not much different from the Ukrainian price during this year, the Ukrainian exporters used only 8% of the current volume of tariff quota.|18|

Assessment of quality of Ukrainian products for the export to the EU

From 23 September to 03 October 2014, the EU mission took place in Ukraine that was carried out by the representatives of the Food and Veterinary Office (FVO) of the Directorate General for Health and Consumers (DG SANCO) in order to evaluate the operation of control systems as well as certification procedures of milk and dairy products intended to be exported to the EU.

According to the data provided by the State Veterinary and Phytosanitary Service, Ukraine can begin the exportation of its dairy products to the EU markets in the second half of 2015. However, the decisive examination of this issue as well as the decision-making in Brussels is not possible until Ukrainian producers take into account a number of comments made by the EU delegation regarding production process, and in particular, implementation of the EU Regulations № 178/2002, 852/2004, 853/2004,854/2004 and 882/2004, including introduction of the HACCP and traceability systems, production of dairy products solely with milk classified as “extra”, registration of animals and marking of products.|19|

Just to remind: as of today, there were nine verification visits of the DG SANCO. According to the reports of the State Veterinary and Phytosanitary Service, Ukraine has a right to export to the EU its honey, fishery and poultry products|20| as well as pursues the negotiations regarding the beef exports to the EU|21|.

Mandatory identification and registration of livestock 
On 26 September 2014, the Law of Ukraine “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine regarding the identification and registration of animals” No. 1648 dated 14 August 2014|22| came into force. The Law introduced the mandatory identification and registration of the farm animals in the Unified State Register. The amendments are aimed to harmonize the relevant domestic legislation with the EU requirements.


VAT rate for specific medical products

On 10 September 2014, the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On Approval of the List of Medical Products, Supply in the Customs Territory of Ukraine and Import into the Customs Territory of Ukraine of which are Subject to the Value Added Tax at a Rate of 7 Per Cent” No.410 as of 3 September 2014|23| took effect. As a result,the government has established a preferential VAT rate of 7% only for certain categories of medical products.

Just to remind: according to the previous CMU Resolution № 216 dated 07.01.2014, all medical products were taxable at 7% VAT rate, that corresponded to the requirements of the EU Directive 2006/112/EC on the common system of value added tax prohibiting preferences and exemptions for specific goods.|24|

Amendments to the Law of Ukraine “On Medicines”

On 5 September 2014, the Law of Ukraine “On Amendments to the Law of Ukraine “On Medicines” regarding the Improvement of the Procedure on the Provision of the Population with the Medical Products Intended for the Treatment of Socially Dangerous and Serious Diseases” No.1637-VII as of 12.08.2014|25| came into force. According to the amended Law, the importation of unregistered foreign medical products intended for the medical support of military servants as well as rank and file and command staff running a mission in the scopes of the anti-terrorist operation, during a state of emergency or a special period shall be allowed on the resolution of the Ministry of Healthcare provided that the registration and acceptance for use of these medical products in these foreign countries is confirmed by the supporting documents. The importation of unregistered foreign medical products into the customs territory of Ukraine may be allowed in case they are intended for the treatment of rare (orphan) diseases.|26|

Besides that, the Law of Ukraine “On Medicines” was amended on 20 October 2014. According to the amended Law, upon the expiry of time-limit for the acceptance for use of the medical product in Ukraine, its further use is subjected to re-registration. Further, the medicines can be used for an unrestricted period of time in Ukraine after re-registration. Besides that, the amendments envisage that the medical products released into circulation within the period of validity of their permit for use are accepted for use in Ukraine until the date of expiry specified by the producer and indicated in the package.|27|

Orders of the Ministry of Healthcare regarding a new procedure for the calculation of wholesale prices for medicines and medical products

On 26 September 2014, the joint Order of the Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine and the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade of Ukraine “On Approval of a Procedure for the Calculation of Wholesale Prices for Medicinal Products” No. 584/1011|28| dated 20 August 2014 and the Order of the Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine “On Approval of Regulation on the Register of Wholesale Prices for Medicines and Medical Products, Procedure of Amendments to the Register and Form of Declaration of Changes to the Wholesale Prices of Medicines and Medical Products” No. 574|29| dated 18 September 2014 came into force.

The Orders quoted above foresee a new procedure for declaration of changes to wholes ale prices for medicines and medical products, which can be purchased by health institutions that are wholly or partly funded by the state and local budgets. The Orders were adopted pursuant to the CMU Resolution “On Reference Pricing in respect of Medicines and Medical Products to be Purchased at Public Cost” No.  240 dated 2 July 2014.

Amendments to the Procedure on Examination of Registration Materials in respect of Medicines

On 26 September 2014 the Order of the Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine “On Amendments to the Procedure on Examination of Registration Materials in respect of Medicines Submitted for the State Registration (Re-registration) and for Examination of Materials Introducing Amendments to the Registration Materials during the Validity Period of  the Registration Certificate” No.566|30| dated 11 August 2014 took effect.

The Order envisages the simplification of the procedure of state registration of certain medicines. In particular, the list of medicines is complemented with the medical immunobiological pharmaceuticals used in the specific immunization of infectious diseases that are included in the immunization schedule in Ukraine and for the treatment of socially dangerous diseases (tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and rare diseases) that may be subjected to certain requirements during the registration.

Good Distribution Practice of Medicinal Products

The guidelines “Medicinal Products. Good distribution Practice. СТ-Н МОЗУ 42-5.0:2014”|31| were approved by the Order of the Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine No. 593 as of 22.08.2014. The Guidelines are intended to harmonize Ukrainian legislation with the relevant EU requirements – the European Commission Guidelines on Good Distribution Practice of medicinal products for human use as of 5 November 2013 (2013/C 343/01).

The Guidelines apply to the business entities involved in the distribution of medicinal products within the territory of Ukraine, including the enterprises producing the medicinal products and the persons engaged in the brokering activities. The Act is not applicable to the enterprises involved in the medicinal products retail trade in pharmacies as well as to their structural units.

The Guidelines are applicable for the purpose of: (1) organization of a good distribution practice of medicinal products in accordance with the principles and rules of GDP and establishment of the quality systems by the wholesalers including manufacturers; (2) design, construction, reconstruction and technical re-equipment of the wholesale and manufacturing enterprises producing medicinal products; (3) organization of the due brokering activity and establishment of the quality systems by the brokers.

Draft amendments to the state registration of medical products

The State Administration of Ukraine on Medicinal Products elaborated the amendments to the CMU Resolution “On Approval of the Procedure for State Registration of Medical Equipment and Medical Products” No. 1497 dated 09 November 2004, which is available on the Administration’s website as of 16 September 2014.|32| In particular, the Draft envisages that the state registration of medical products may be carried out not only on the basis of the expertise conducted by the Administration but also following the conformity assessment procedure that demonstrates the compliance with the requirements of the Technical regulations on medical products (the CMU Regulations  No. 753,No. 754No. 755 dated 02 October 2013) that is confirmed by valid documents issued by conformity assessment agency.|33|

New Draft Law “On Medicinal Products”

The elaboration of a new Law “On Medicinal Products”|34| is held at the level of two working groups established under the jurisdiction of the Parliamentary Committee on Public Health and the Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine. The Law has to be harmonized with the requirements of the EU law, in particular with the EU Directive 2001/83/EC. However, the Draft Law quoted above is characterized as “selectively harmonized” as far as it does not address a lot of provisions of the Directive. Thus, marking requirements are in line with the requirements of the Directive. Besides that, the Draft Law envisages the possibility to obtain a registration certificate for an unlimited period of time with the exception of cases designated by the Ministry of Healthcare.

However, the most controversial aspect of this Draft Law is a placement procedure of a product on Ukrainian market. Thus, the Directive 2001/83/ЕС defines a detailed list of the documents to be submitted by an applicant in order to get an authorization for placement of a product on the market; it also designates the procedure descriptions for preparation and examination of documents and actions of the regulator in the course of decision-making. The proposed Draft Law envisages the current model of placement of the medical products on the market – a “registration certificate” remains; and the list of documents to be submitted by an applicant as well as the procedure of expert examination shall be established by the Orders of the Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine. In the meantime, a number of terms provided by the Directive are not reflected in the Draft Law; the EU procedures on mutual recognition and the permitting stage in the process of products placement on the EU market are not implemented.|35|


Law of Ukraine “On Sanctions” came into force

On 12 September 2014, the Law of Ukraine “On Sanctions”|36| that envisages more than 25 types of restrictions to be imposed against foreign states, legal entities and individuals conducting terrorist or any other activity which threats Ukrainian sovereignty and territorial integrity, came into force. Sanctions include assets freeze, restrictions on trade, economic and financial transactions, blocking of the transit of resources, ban on export of capital, etc. The decisions on the application of sectoral sanctions (as regards foreign state or general public engaged in certain type of activity) shall be adopted by the National Security Council, brought into force by the Decree of the President of Ukraine and approved during 48 hours by the Resolution of the Parliament. The decisions as to the application of personal sanctions shall be adopted by the National Security Council and brought into force by the Decree of the President of Ukraine.

The Law “On sanctions” in details

Law of Ukraine establishing free economic zone “Crimea” came into force

On 27 September 2014, the Law “On the Creation of the Free Economic Zone "Crimea" and on the Specifics of Economic Activity on the Temporarily Occupied Territory of Ukraine” No. 1636-VII|37| dated 12 August 2014 came into force.

According to this Law, a border control operates on the administrative frontiers of the free economic zone "Crimea" (“FEZ "Crimea"”) that covers the territory of Crimea and Sevastopol City. The Law establishes a special legal regime for economic activity of legal entities and individuals, including special regime for application of regulatory, tax and customs laws of Ukraine within this territory for the period of 10 years. Thus, the national taxes and charges are not levied within the territory of the FEZ “Crimea”. The legal entities having their tax address (situs) within the territory of the FEZ “Crimea” shall be treated as non-residents for tax purposes. Any revenues of a resident having source of origin within the territory of the FEZ “Crimea” shall be subjected to tax as foreign income according to the general rules of the Tax Code of Ukraine. For tax and customs laws purposes, the contracts concluded between the undertakings registered in the territory of the FEZ “Crimea” and other undertakings shall be deemed as documents used instead of international business contracts. Besides that, pursuant to this Law, a free customs zone functions within the territory of the FEZ “Crimea”. Customs formalities relating to the movement of goods and persons across the administrative border of the FEZ “Crimea” shall be conducted ??at the customs control areas. A multicurrency regime (both UAN and other foreign currencies) shall be established within the territory of the FEZ “Crimea”, but the bank transfers from the FEZ “Crimea” to the “mainland” territory of Ukraine and vice versa shall be made exclusively in UAN or in freely convertible currency.

On 30 October 2014, the Russian government approved the establishment of the free economic zone in the annexed Crimea. As it was announced by the Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, investors will be exempted from a number of taxes for a term of up to 10 years, and the administrative barriers will be lowered.|38|

State Veterinary and Phytosanitary Service of Ukraine temporarily banned the importation of Crimean goods 

According to the Order of the Chief State Inspector of Veterinary Medicine of Ukraine No. 129|39| dated 10 October 2014, the State Veterinary and Phytosanitary Service of Ukraine imposed a temporary ban on the importation of Crimean goods into Ukraine as well as their transit through the territory of the country starting from 13 October 2014.|40| The reason for the imposition of a ban is inability to carry out the veterinary-sanitary supervision and control over the epizootic situation within the area of the peninsula due to the establishment of the free economic zone in Crimea and special regime of economic activity on the temporarily occupied territory; as well as due to the uncontrolled movement of food products across the Kerch Strait which creates risks for the epizootic welfare of Ukraine.

Ministry of Justice of Ukraine approved the procedure of registration of franchise agreements

The Procedure of State Registration of Commercial Concession (Subconcession) Agreements was approved by the Ministry of Justice with the Order of No. 1601/5 dated 29 September 2014.|41| According to the Order, the Procedure will take effect in six months after its publication, i.e. on 21 April 2015. The act envisages the procedure of state registration of the franchise agreements (subconcession) as well as amendment, cancellation and termination of an agreement. The relevant information should be registered in the Unified State Register of Legal Entities and Private Entrepreneurs. Besides that, the registration of a commercial concession agreement is free of charge, and the documents for the registration can be submitted in person as well as by mail or in electronic form through a Registration portal.

Additional information: according to Article 1118 of the Civil Code of Ukraine, the commercial concession (or franchise) agreements shall be subjected to mandatory state registration. However, no procedure for registration was established over a long period that caused a number of legal problems.

Marking of Russian goods in Kyiv shopping centers

The decision on the marking of price tags for Russian goods in Kyiv shops  was taken on October 9 by the Kyiv City Council.|42|


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